Elevated levels of hormones in children associated with the thyroid gland - regardless of whether they are produced in the gland itself, or in other parts of the body - can be markers of many diseases.Although the diseases affecting the thyroid gland in children are not as common as in adults, congenital and acquired diseases of the thyroid gland among them is still not uncommon.For example, one of the 3500-5000 newborns is born with hypothyroidism.
Diseases of the thyroid gland in children have almost the same clinical manifestations as in adults.For the diagnosis of commonly used blood tests which determine the level of one or more of the following hormones: thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), which is secreted by the hypothalamus, if reduced levels of thyroxine;thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted by the pituitary in response to the increase in the TWG;thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) - produced when TSH stimulates the thyroid gland.4 - a more metabolically active ingredient;if
normal TSH levels in children
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) is secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate the production of thyroid hormones thyroxine Thyroxine - the main thyroid hormone (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).Determining the level of TSH - is one way to evaluate the thyroid gland of the child.The normal TSH levels immediately after birth is quite high, and by the time the child begins to attend school, it is reduced to a level normal for an adult.Normal levels of TSH in children of school age are in the range from 0.6 to 5.5-mile international units per liter (mIU / L).
Thyroid hormone is an essential tool with which the pituitary gland interacts with the thyroid gland.
When the pituitary gland detects the change in concentration of T3 and T4 in the blood, it allocates an amount of TSH, which is necessary to adjust the level of thyroid hormones.If the child parameters T3 and T4 deviate from the norm, the analysis on TTG will help your doctor to understand is whether the reason for rejection in problems with the pituitary gland or thyroid gland.
norm and deviation
For infants born at term, the reference range of TSH values is very wide: the norm are considered indicators from 1.3 to 16 mIU / L.For a child under the age of one month, the rate is 0.9 - 7.7 mIU / L, and the children of school-age reference range is the same as in adults - from 0.6 to 5.5 mIU / L.This gradual decrease in TSH level is normal, although the concentration of free T4 during this period will remain relatively stable.
analysis on TTG often done in conjunction with the analysis on the level of T3 and T4 and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH).These tests give your doctor a more complete picture of the health of the child.Since the methods of measuring the level of various hormones differ in the first place with the appearance of anxiety symptoms is usually prescribed test for TSH;if its level deviates from the norm, it can be recommended, and other analyzes.
abnormal levels of TSH in the presence of symptoms of thyroid dysfunction helps to identify many diseases.Thus, elevated levels of TSH, a child may be an indicator of congenital hypothyroidism or thyroid hormone resistance.Too low levels of TSH may be due to some congenital disorders, and taking certain medications.
Since normal range of TSH wide, significant variations within it, too, may point to thyroid dysfunction.In addition, high levels of TSH in normal concentrations of thyroid hormones may be associated with increased risk of hypothyroidism in the future.
Hyperthyroidism - a condition in which the thyroid hormone levels higher than normal.In newborns it may be the result of an excess of T4 obtained from the mother, as well - a sign of Graves' disease.Hyperthyroidism can be primary (if the thyroid gland produces too much T4 without external stimulation) and secondary (caused by excessive secretion of thyroxine activity of the pituitary gland, or other reasons).
In hypothyroidism thyroid hormone levels dropped.
It may also be the primary (if the cause of decline in hormone levels lies in the very thyroid gland), or secondary - if it is due to external causes.
In young children, hyperthyroidism can cause symptoms such as irritability Irritability - Try to control your mood , feeding problems, hypertension, tachycardia Tachycardia - the body to the limit? , exophthalmos (bulging eyes), goiter, slow development, vomiting and diarrhea.In the absence of early treatment reduced the level of thyroid hormones can lead to impaired brain development, too little growth and hyperactivity.In children suffering from hypothyroidism at birth may lag in mental and physical development.If hypothyroidism developed in pre-school or school age, its consequences may be a delay of growth and puberty.
Although most cases of hypothyroidism in children can be successfully treated, it can be serious consequences, such as cretinism, and even death.Hypothyroidism slows neurological development that may be related to low muscle tone, increased levels of bilirubin, poor appetite, respiratory distress and other complications.In adolescents, hypothyroidism often causes the same symptoms as adults - weight gain, constipation, dry hair Dry hair: how to restore hair vitality? and a variety of skin problems.
to treat hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism should normalize thyroid hormone levels.In hyperthyroidism used for this antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine, and occasionally surgical therapies.Children with congenital hypothyroidism needed replacement thyroid hormone therapy, which will last a lifetime.