Cytomegalovirus in children: the consequences and treatment
- Cytomegalovirus in children: the consequences and treatment
Children can be infected with the virus during fetal development, as well as acquire the infection during the period of childhood.Cytomegalovirus in children with latent infection occurs during a minor clinical manifestations, recalling in some cases for easy when a respiratory infection or influenza.Unlike respiratory infection for cytomegalovirus infection is characterized by long duration.
Cytomegalovirus, representative of the family of herpes viruses - one of the most common viruses.Children infected with CMV infection is usually in early childhood - for example, in the nursery or kindergarten.
Usually cytomegalovirus in healthy children are asymptomatic or it is accompanied by mild symptoms similar to the symptoms of mononucleosis symptoms of mononucleosis - easily mistaken and disappear after a few days or weeks.
however, should not be considered harmless disease cytomegalovirus infection: CMV infection can lead to very serious consequences, especially in children with weakenedimmune systems and infants with so-called congenital cytomegalovirus infection.
After cytomegalovirus infection is present in the child's body in an inactive state, but a weakened immune system (for example, due to an illness) can trigger the activity of cytomegalovirus and cause serious complications.
If the infection is inherent
most severe consequences virus infection can be seen in congenital infection.Transmission of the virus from the mother to the developing fetus occurs when transplacental or ascending infection.The characteristic symptoms of having a child with congenital viral infection include the following symptoms:
- presence of purpura or petechiae, which refers to the hemorrhagic syndrome
- develop jaundice
- enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly)
- defeat of the respiratory system in the form of a childinterstitial pneumonia, bronchitis
most vulnerable to the actions of the virus are central parts of the nervous system.The consequence of congenital infection may be the development of encephalitis, hydrocephalus or microcephaly, optic atrophy, deafness.The child is marked violation of motor and mental activity.Defeat is generalized, what might be called the hallmark of acquired infection, which occurs locally in the form of localized lesions of the salivary glands.It is difficult to say which is the main factor damaging to the developing fetus, such as a virus carrier, exacerbation of chronic infection, which occurs in a latent form.
Symptoms of cytomegalovirus in children
Symptoms that may occur during infection with cytomegalovirus, depend on the age and health of the child.Thus, in children infected with CMV in the womb, usually the symptoms of CMV infection at birth are not observed.The consequences of infection are manifested later - the child may have problems with hearing, vision, neurological abnormalities, developmental problems.In rare cases, the symptoms of CMV infection appear at birth - in these situations, cytomegalovirus infection manifests enlargement of the liver and spleen, jaundice, seizures, skin rash, underdevelopment baby.In neonates with symptoms of CMV infection at birth, the risk of complications with hearing, vision, disturbances of development is much higher.
children can become infected with cytomegalovirus soon after birth - Cytomegalovirus CMV - what is its danger? can penetrate into the body of the child through breast milk.In such cases, there is usually no symptoms of infection, although sometimes on a background of cytomegalovirus infection develops pneumonia, hepatitis Hepatitis - the scourge of our time , a rash appears on the skin.
older children and teenagers the main symptoms of CMV infection are symptoms similar to the symptoms of mononucleosis Mononucleosis - forecast favorable - fatigue, pain and muscle aches, headache, fever, rarely - liver enlargement andspleen.These symptoms usually cause only minor discomfort and tested in two or three weeks.
In general, the duration of symptoms depends on the age, health status and the nature of the child's infection.
For example, in severe cases, infection with cytomegalovirus before birth (congenital CMV), a child may appear a serious problem in the development of which leave their imprint on his life in the future.On the other hand, the symptoms of cytomegalovirus infection in older children and adolescents can be observed for only a few days and did not cause any major complications.
Children as the source of infection
cytomegalovirus transmission can only occur through direct contact with an infected person.Infected medium are blood, urine, saliva and other biological substrates.Almost half of all clinical cases can be argued that children are the source of the virus for an adult.Children over the years shed the virus in urine and saliva, and the clinical manifestations of the disease are minimal or asymptomatic.The worst situation is in the children's and preschool institutions, as the main mode of transmission is considered to be airborne.
Once in the body of the child at the first contact, the virus stays there forever.To achieve its complete elimination from the body is not possible, despite the emergence of new antiviral drugs.The main task of parents is to strengthen the child's immune system to the body fighting an infection.It is important to prevent aggravation of the infection, which occurs in chronic form that has not developed symptomatic stage of the disease.Cytomegalovirus infection in children proceeds as mononucleosis version, accompanied by fever, catarrhal symptoms, as well as an increase in certain groups of lymph nodes (cervical, submandibular nodes increase in size).Note the increase, swelling and tenderness of the parotid salivary glands.The distinguishing feature of this type of infection can be considered a long course of the disease up to six weeks.Symptoms of colds by type of respiratory infection are faster.
Given the nonspecific clinical manifestations of this type of virus infection, it is necessary to conduct laboratory diagnosis, which can be used to confirm the presence of the virus in the body.Laboratory diagnosis is required especially in the case of latent or subclinical infection.Reliable indicator of active infection can not be a fact of isolation of the virus in urine or saliva.It is proved that the virus can be isolated from saliva for many months after the initial infection and it is stored in the urine over the years.In this connection, it should be based on the indicators of specific antibodies (immunoglobulin M and G), which is growing at a titer of infection.
So far, the measures have not yet developed specific prevention of cytomegalovirus infection.
Children can spend passive immunization against cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin.Such preventive measures shows infants and children at an early age in the case of acute infection period.Given that the most widely used is airborne transmission of the virus, it is necessary to teach a child to the most simple, affordable prevention, namely:
- sure to wash your hands
- eliminate the use of someone else's articles of hygiene
Preventive measures can beinclude receiving herbal medicines to enhance the body of the child.The most effective means are wild rose, viburnum, St. John's wort.Broth of these herbs in the form of tea is recommended to give the child.The negative impact on health has beriberi, since such an unfavorable background of the activation of a viral infection, which may be in the child's body long enough.
can draw directly immunostimulatory therapy drugs.This type of prevention is to appoint a doctor, with a preliminary study of the immunological status of the child.Parents should not give the child medication on their own.Only in the case of activation of cytomegalovirus infection should start taking antiviral drugs.It is important to notify parents of the child, explaining to them that taking these drugs does not mean the complete deliverance of the body from a virus that comes the recovery.The main indication for antiviral drugs is prevention of complications of infection, to achieve reduction of clinical manifestations, as well as to transfer the infection in a latent stage.
Diagnosis and treatment
confirm the presence of cytomegalovirus infection in a child can study the samples or body fluids, mucous membranes, in some cases - a blood test for specific antibodies produced by the immune system of the body of the child "in response" to cytomegalovirus infection.Specific treatment in asymptomatic CMV infection is completely healthy children are usually not required.If the child cytomegalovirus infection led to serious complications (especially in neonates or small children with a weak immune system) are used for the treatment of antiviral drugs - intravenously in a hospital or in the home after the stabilization of the child orally.Since antiviral drugs can cause serious side effects in children for the treatment of cytomegalovirus infection, they apply only to really urgent cases.
Particularly at risk are children with weakened immune systems.Therefore, if a child suffered a serious illness, when it detects a child's symptoms similar to mononucleosis symptoms - high temperature, aching pain and muscle aches, prolonged headache - should immediately contact a doctor.