Thyroid cancer in children - a rare disease
- Thyroid cancer in children - a rare disease
Thyroid cancer occurs in members of all ages - from children and teenagers to peopleelderly.Children under ten years of thyroid cancer is very rare - in the world each year less than one case of cancer per million people in this age.In older children and adolescents thyroid carcinoma develops most - 15.9 cases per million persons aged 15 to 19 years.The peak incidence occurs in people aged 50 years and a little older.In recent years the incidence of thyroid cancer in girls and teenage girls has increased slightly.Boys under the age of fifteen years, these changes are not marked.
thyroid gland - an organ, shaped like a butterfly, located under the "Adam's apple" in the front of the neck.It produces hormones necessary for a person throughout his life, that govern:
- body's response to low and high temperatures;
- The energy level of the body;
- weight and appetite.
Thyroid cancer in children is rare, and in many cases respond well to treatment.For example, in the US for one year, on average, only one of the children gets sick 1000-2000 thyroid cancer.From diseased cured about 95% of patients.
types of thyroid cancer
There are four main types of thyroid cancer:
- Papillary thyroid cancer - is slowly growing carcinoma Carcinoma - how to prevent disaster? , which is the most common type of thyroid carcinoma.
- follicular thyroid cancer.This kind of carcinoma is growing slowly and has a high survival rate.
- Medullary thyroid cancer.This species has a negative impact on the ability of the thyroid gland to maintain normal levels of calcium in the blood.
- Anaplastic thyroid cancer.This is the most rare and most rare species of thyroid carcinoma.
In most cases of thyroid cancer in children (and adults) do not cause any symptoms.Suspected carcinoma may appear at the doctor, if during a medical examination in the thyroid gland was discovered node - or seal that is usually benign.
Sometimes symptoms of thyroid cancer are difficulty breathing and / or swallowing, or change the voice of a child.The reasons for the suspicion of cancer of the thyroid gland may also be changes in the child's sensitivity to cold or heat, heart palpitations (sudden increase in heart rate without objective reasons, such as physical activity, and / or irregular heartbeat), as well as sudden, significant fluctuations in body weight.
most commonly found in children following types of thyroid cancer:
- differentiated thyroid cancer.This type includes papillary and follicular thyroid cancers, with all their varieties.Papillary carcinoma is the most common type of thyroid cancer among children and adults.
- Medullary thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer: it is curable in children is less common.In 30-35% of cases it is hereditary cancer, the development of which is caused by a gene passed from one child to the parents.
Additional information on differentiated thyroid cancer in children
- Because of the small number of studies and scientific data, differentiated thyroid cancer in children and adolescents treated, as a whole, as well as in adults.In papillary cancer that affects children most often, the best prognosis compared to other types of thyroid cancer.
- Despite the common features that are characteristic of cases of thyroid cancer in different patients, in each case, an individual approach and treatment of two patients with the same diagnosis is not always the same.
- In children and adolescents papillary thyroid cancer papillary thyroid cancer - the most common type usually diagnosed at later stages than in adult patients with the same disease.
- Most children with papillary thyroid cancer at diagnosis have regional metastases in the lymph nodes.We found 10-20% of children remote metastases frequently - in the lungs.In adult patients, remote metastases at diagnosis is only 5% of cases.
- Recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer occurs more frequently in children than in adults.However, despite the high risk of recurrence of cancer and the presence of metastases at diagnosis in most cases the prognosis is very good.
- follicular thyroid cancer in children is less common, is more aggressive, and the forecast at such diagnosis is worse - it is associated with vascular invasion, that is, the tendency of cancer spread to the blood vessels.However, the prognosis for children with follicular thyroid cancer, more favorable than for adults with the same diagnosis.
- Metastases to the lymph nodes thyroid follicular cancer is a rare (compared with papillary carcinoma).Because vascular invasion the risk of development of remote metastases, particularly in the lungs and bones.
- Among children mortality from thyroid cancer is very low.Even children with distant metastases at diagnosis have a better chance to live many more years or decades.
main objectives of the treatment of thyroid cancer is to stop the growth of tumors, prevention of metastases, and reduced risk of cancer recurrence.Typically, the tumor was removed surgically.Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are only used in cases where complete tumor removal is impossible.
If during the examination of a child in his thyroid gland is found node, the doctor usually appoints ultrasound.To accurately determine the nature of tumors, a biopsy may be needed.Most thyroid nodules Thyroid nodules - abnormal growths are benign.
Sometimes in the process of diagnosis of thyroid cancer are used and diagnostic procedures such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray examination.