Intracranial pressure in children: a frequent phenomenon
Why children may increase intracranial pressure?This issue is of concern to many parents.Intracranial pressure may increase for different reasons, most often it is the result of some illness or intoxication during pregnancy.
What is intracranial pressure and why it develops
Intracranial pressure - the pressure fluid in the free spaces of the brain and spinal cord - the ventricles of the brain, the spinal canal, and so on.The pressure of the fluid can fluctuate normally, while improving the physical and mental stress.For example, an infant baby man, though with little finger intracranial pressure increases during crying, sucking, and in the rest decreases.
pathologically increased intracranial pressure in children can occur against the backdrop of perinatal brain lesions (arising in the second half of pregnancy, childbirth and in the first four weeks after birth), injuries, intoxications, infections, tumors.Very often different brain lesions develop during pregnancy in oxygen starvation (hypoxia) of the fetus.Increased intracranial pressure can also increase at too early closure of large fontanelle.
the first year of life increased intracranial pressure can be detected by measuring the circumference of the head: it increases faster than normal.Therefore, pediatricians and pediatric neurologists have special tables with normal age distribution of growth, the volume of the chest and head.In addition, a child often vomits Why the child vomits frequently - what are the norm? , unjustly yelling (in fact, the reason is - a headache), refuses to drink, he can shake the handle and chin.Eyeballs bulging of the child and laid down (this feature is called a "symptom of the setting sun"), can be observed strabismus Strabismus - how to find the cause? .Large fontanelle child with increased intracranial pressure and pulses protrudes noticeably to the eye.
in preschool and school-age children increased intracranial pressure manifested constant headaches, worse neuropsychological overvoltage and high information loads.Often background headaches nausea and vomiting that does not bring relief.The behavior of such a child may not always be adequate, it often changes the mood, marked irritability Irritability - Try to control your mood .Sometimes these children have convulsions (especially against the heat in infectious diseases) and strabismus.All this leads to mental retardation, and backwardness in school.
to confirm the presence of a child in intracranial pressure and to identify the causes of its development (ie to establish a definitive diagnosis) to children under one year is performed ultrasonography (US) of the brain through a "window" in the skull as a non-privatelarge fontanelle.
After the anterior fontanelle closes conduct such a study would not be possible, so the children after a year to detect the increased intracranial pressure is carried out with magnetic resonance or computed tomography (CT or MRI).
In addition, children with suspected increased intracranial pressure certainly looks optometrist: identification of swelling of the optic nerve during the inspection of the fundus is a confirmation of the presence of increased intracranial pressure.
All these studies reveal both the underlying disease that caused the increase in intracranial pressure.To measure the intracranial pressure can only by puncture - inserting the needle into the ventricles of the brain or spinal cord.
If the child is growing rapidly the volume of the head, in the fundus visible stagnation of the optic nerves, and on US - increasing the ventricles of the brain, he is diagnosed with hydrocephalus.
treatment of diseases accompanied by increased intracranial pressure
with a slight increase in intracranial pressure the child prescribed drugs that improve cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the brain (eg, cavinton, nootropics) and restorative treatment (physiotherapy,massage).
the treatment of diseases which are accompanied by a pronounced increase in intracranial pressure, used diuretics (eg diakarb).If the child is very restless, not sleeping at night, prescribed anti-anxiety (sedatives) and sleeping pills.
If conservative treatment does not give the desired effect, the child is sent to a neurosurgeon for consultation and, if necessary, it is carried out surgical treatment.