Bladder infection in pregnancy: you need to keep the problem under control
Bladder infection is a very common problem among pregnant women.The most common infectious agent that causes inflammation is E. coli.To eliminate the infection or timely detect it and begin treatment to all pregnant women need to do regular urine analysis.
Pregnant women are at increased risk of inflammation of the bladder and other organs of urinary tract infections as a result.After about 6 weeks of pregnancy in women begins expansion of the ureter.He becomes the most extensive in the 22-24 week, and remains so until delivery.The increase in bladder capacity at reduced his tone, coupled with a reduction in the tone of the urethra contribute to slowing urine flow and urethrovesical reflux.In addition, the increase in plasma volume leads to a reduction of concentration of urine, which favors the growth of bacteria in the bladder Urinary bladder - structure and function .Increasing the amount of estrogen and progestin in the urinary tract reduces the resistance to the invasion of bacteria.All these factors contribute to the development of infections and inflammation of the bladder during pregnancy.
pathogens in pregnant women is the same as that of the other patients.80-90% of infections caused by E. coli.They are often caused by other Gram-negative bacteria, e.g., Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae.Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus and group B pathogens are Staphylococcus saprophyticus bladder infections more often.Finally, the most rarely observed in pregnant women infections caused by microorganisms such as enterococci, Gardnerella vaginalis and Ureaplasma ureolyticum.
Causes inflammation of the bladder
Pathogens, as mentioned above, can cause a variety of diseases, from relatively benign to dangerous for a pregnant woman and her unborn child.Bladder Inflammation is a common, but not the only symptom of these diseases.
Acute cystitis Cystitis: urgently take measures is characterized by signs of inflammation of the bladder,as a frequent urge to urinate, a comparative selection of small amounts of urine, and sometimes pain during urination.Signs of systemic disease while absent.
case of suspected acute cystitis Acute cystitis : Treat treated responsibly pregnant women pass urine for analysis, but treatment usually begins even before they are ready - said the presence of symptoms allows a fairly accurate diagnosis.It is generally recommended antibiotics for 7-10 days.According to studies, a three-day course of treatment often gives the same result, however, the risk of recurrent infection that pregnant women can have serious consequences.
pyelonephritis Acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy - a serious systemic disease, which can give serious complications, including sepsis and prematurity.Besides the usual symptoms of inflammation of the bladder and pyelonephritis is accompanied by symptoms such as fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, pain in the lower back and lower abdomen.Pyelonephritis occurs in approximately 2% of pregnant women;23% of them might be a relapse.To prevent complications must be early, aggressive treatment.Hospitalization, although often recommended, not always really necessary.It is necessary for such signs of sepsis, vomiting and dehydration, as well as, if a woman starts the fight - regardless of gestational age.
antibiotics used for treatment, which is administered intravenously and is taken orally.Among these antibiotics - cephalothin and cephalexin.
Usually, improvement occurs within 24-48 hours.The most common cause of treatment failure is the resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics used.If fever and other signs of systemic disease persist despite the antibiotics, the patient should be checked for possible structural abnormalities.For the diagnosis can be used ultrasound or IVP.The indications for intravenous pyelography is to preserve symptoms of infection after antibiotic treatment.However, if possible, should be avoided, since even low levels of X-ray radiation used during this diagnostic procedure is potentially dangerous to the fetus.
In most cases, inflammation of the bladder inflammation of the bladder - inconvenient and unpleasant pregnant women easily treatable and poses no serious risk to the health of mother and child.Nevertheless, the detection of inflammation caused by infection, as soon as possible to begin treatment, to minimize any risks to health.