Ectopic pregnancy, despite the advances of modern medicine, is still a dangerous disease.This is due not only to the difficulty of diagnosis (rarely suspected ectopic pregnancy in the early stages, even before the development of complications), but also with the numerous and common causes, which are the starting point of the disease.Ectopic pregnancy can take many forms, but predisposing factors remain the same.
Ectopic pregnancy Ectopic
or ectopic pregnancy - a pregnancy that develops outside the uterus.Localization ovum is different.Basically, it is tubal pregnancy, its frequency is as high as 90%, less common ovarian (the pregnancy develops in the ovary) and cervical (the pregnancy develops in the cervical section of the uterus).As casuistry - abdominal pregnancy is when the fertilized egg (usually after a tubal abortion) is implanted in the abdominal viscera (intestine, omentum, liver).Due to the fact that the implantation of the ovum occurs in places where there are no adequate condi
reasons that lead to ectopic pregnancy
In order to understand the reasons that lead to the development of an ectopic pregnancy, it is necessary to recall the mechanism of fertilization and implantation of the egg.After the follicle egg is released into the abdominal cavity from the ovary and enters the fallopian tube.It is here that she met with the sperm and fertilization.Then the egg by peristalsis pipes (pipe reduction) into the cavity of the uterus, which had already occurred changes in the endometrium preparations for its introduction (implantation).In view of certain factors rate cuts the fallopian tubes is broken, and the egg or do not have time to get into the uterus, or from one pipe to another falls.
- inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and pelvis (inflammation leads to the formation of adhesions, a narrowing of pipes and bends);
- medical abortion (scraping broken during the normal structure of the endometrium, thus preventing implantation of the egg, as well as post-abortion complications are not uncommon);
- malformations pipes including pipes and tumors;
- intrauterine contraception (IUD prevents uterine pregnancy, causing the egg back into the casting tube);
- surgery on the fallopian tubes in history;
- vitro fertilization (IVF);
- hormonal status (lack of female sex hormones or an excess of male violate peristalsis tubes);
- age over 35 years (from the age of the egg changes its properties).
Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy
Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy Ectopic pregnancy - diagnosis rather complicated process.Basic diagnostic methods:
- History taking
Complaints patient confirm all the signs of pregnancy: missed period, positive pregnancy test, early toxicosis.With the progression of ectopic pregnancy, there are complaints of abdominal pain Abdominal pain: when to sound the alarm? , usually on one side.The pains are characterized by abrupt pulling up, a characteristic symptom is the appearance of spotting Spotting - it is important to rule out pathology after the attack.
- Gynecological examination
During vaginal examination palpable fuzzy, flexible education appendages.Often, we have to be pozadimatochnaya hematoma (due to intra-abdominal bleeding).
- laboratory method for the determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
In determining hCG numbers it with an ectopic pregnancy is much lower than in the uterine pregnancy.In severe cases, to determine the level of human chorionic gonadotropin produced several times, with a break in 24-48 hours.
- pelvic ultrasound
In the absence of pregnancy ultrasound is determined in the womb.
Kuldotsentez or puncture the abdominal cavity through the posterior vaginal fornix, the procedure is very painful and is used only in difficult cases.Using a special needle receive blood from the abdominal cavity, which confirms the diagnosis of an ectopic pregnancy.