All pregnant women are aware of the role played by the placenta to the fetus.Pathology of the formation and maturation of the placenta can lead to irreversible consequences of pregnancy and child development.Thick placenta - it is rather the national definition of the evidence of her premature ripening.The reasons that lead to the formation of a thick placenta, set, and its thickness is set in the US.
Placenta Placenta (in Latin - cake) is a temporary body that develops along with the fruit of the germ cells.Development of the placenta ends around 16 weeks of pregnancy, after which it begins to synthesize the hormones of pregnancy.Normally, the placenta is located on the front or rear wall of the uterus.Its functions include:
- implementation of gas exchange (oxygen from maternal blood enters the body of the fetus, and in the opposite direction removes carbon dioxide);
- delivery of nutrients to the fetus and the removal of its metabolites;
- immune function (antibody penetration Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity mother to the fetus);
- secretion of hormones.
medical parameters placenta
During pregnancy, the placenta goes through four stages of development, which is the degree of maturity and determined by ultrasonography:
- zero maturity (formation) - homogeneous structure of the placenta, normally up to 30 weeks;
- first maturity (growth) - in the tissues of some placental appear echogenic inclusions, from 27 to 34 per week;
- second maturity (maturity) - chorionic structure is more undulating, there are multiple echogenic inclusions, normally 34 to 39 per week;
- third degree of maturity (aging) - placenta becomes lobed, multiple calcifications are present, normal after 37 weeks.
thickness of the placenta by ultrasound must comply with gestational age in weeks.In the case of the thickening and the emergence of the third degree of maturity suggests premature ripening and aging of the placenta.
Causes thick placenta
causes leading to thickening of the placenta, are different.It can be both viral (influenza, SARS) and infectious diseases (syphilis, toxoplasmosis).Also, in the formation of a thick placenta play a role: Rh-conflict pregnancy, diabetes mellitus - threatening and incurable disease mother, severe anemia, the threat of termination of pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, low or excess body weight, preeclampsia and others.
are exposed thick placenta?
premature aging of placenta say when the third degree of maturity is present up to 37 weeks.Due to the thickening of the placenta and the appearance of calcifications in her, she can not fully carry out its functions.Accordingly, the fetus does not receive oxygen and nutrients, which can lead to chronic hypoxia and intrauterine development.Because of the pronounced swelling Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause of placenta is reduced and its hormonal function that appears threatening miscarriage or premature birth.In severe cases of premature maturation of the placenta can be fetal death and premature detachment of the placenta.
In case of thick placenta doctor prescribes an additional examination, which includes:
- cardiotocography (fetal heart rate determination), held once every two weeks;
- ultrasound of the fetus;
- hormonal studies;
- Doppler (the study of blood flow in the mother-placenta-fetus).
Treatment thick placenta
treatment of premature maturation of the placenta depends on the cause of aging.In mild cases, no specific treatment is required, it is limited to the watchful eyes of the state of the placenta and fetus.If thick placenta was the result of an infection, anti-inflammatory therapy is carried out if there was a thickening of the placenta due to Rhesus conflict - the treatment of this condition.Premature aging of the placenta due to the development of anemia requires antianemic therapy.
In addition, a set of measures aimed at the treatment of hypoxia and intrauterine fetal malnutrition: aktovegin Aktovegin - without fear of negative consequences , antiplatelet agents (Courant, aspirin), vitamin therapy.