normal birth weight ranges from 2,500 to 3,600 grams.If the baby is born at term, but weighing less than 2.5 kilograms, in which case we say that the baby is immature, it has been observed during pregnancy fetal malnutrition.What is that terrible diagnosis: "fetal malnutrition"?How to deal with it and whether you can avoid it?Answers to these questions are looking for many expectant mothers.
fetal malnutrition, or it is also called intrauterine growth retardation (VZRP) - a slowdown in the natural growth of the fetus when the fetus fetometricheskie figures do not correspond to a given gestational age.
Causes of fetal malnutrition
reasons, which can lead to intrauterine growth retardation are many, and all of them can be divided into three groups.That is, the causes of the mother, the placenta and the very future of the baby.
Causes of maternal
reasons of the mother - is its chronic diseases and complications of pregnancy:
- continuous threat of termination of pregnancy;
- chronic diseases of the mother (renal failure, cardiovascular system, endocrine pathology);
- pathology of pregnancy (gestosis, hypotension);
- infectious diseases of the mother (chronic tonsillitis, carious teeth);
- poor diet pregnant Pregnancy and Nutrition: dangerous products ;
- hazards (industrial hazard, smoking, alcohol);
- women younger than age 18 and older than 30 years.
reasons on the part of the placenta
reasons on the part of the placenta relate to her disease or injury:
- detachment or traumaplacenta;
- inflammatory disease of the placenta (placenta);
- infarcts of the placenta and premature aging;
- abnormal location of the placenta (placenta previa).
reasons on the part of the fetus
reasons on the part of the fetus can be caused by fetal malformations Fetal development - week after week , and multiple pregnancy:
- multiple pregnancy;
- fetal abnormalities;
- fetal infections (toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus infection).
Clinic fetal malnutrition
Depending on the cause, duration and severity of its actions, as well as the duration of pregnancy, during which time she began to manifest itself, fetal malnutrition is divided into symmetrical and asymmetrical shapes.By the degree of lagging development of the fetus on the intended duration of pregnancy release:
- 1 degree - the gap is not more than 2 weeks;
- 2 degree - lag of 2-4 weeks;
- 3 degree - the backlog of more than 4 weeks.
symmetrical shape malnutrition
symmetrical shape wasting usually begins to develop early in pregnancy.It manifested in uniform lag in the development of all organs of the fetus.The causes of this form of malnutrition are chromosomal abnormalities, poor diet female fetal malformations.
asymmetric form of malnutrition
beginning to develop this form after 28 weeks of pregnancy, is characterized by uneven development of various organs of the fetus.For example, brain, limbs and skeleton corresponds to the period of pregnancy, and parenchymal organs (kidneys and liver) are lagging behind in development.
Diagnostics fetal malnutrition
First of all, suspect the lag in the development of the baby, the doctor can and should be engaged in surveillance of the pregnant woman.With this purpose, each time at the reception, it produces certain abdominal circumference and height of the pregnant woman standing uterus.When fetal malnutrition, these data will not be consistent with the parameters specific to a particular stage of pregnancy.But the measure may not always reveal the intrauterine development of the fetus, since the thickness of the subcutaneous fat of the anterior abdominal wall, the amount of amniotic fluid and physique in all pregnant women are different.
more accurate diagnosis of fetal malnutrition produced by ultrasound, especially in the dynamics of approximately 2-3 weeks.In the US, it is determined fetometricheskih data, ie measurement of the length of the limbs, head and abdominal circumference fetal determination of the amount of amniotic fluid.
treatment of intrauterine growth retardation is strictly individual and depends on the cause, caused it.Firstly, the correction is made pregnant chronic diseases.Second, the normalization of the power of the future mother.The diet should be present animal proteins and carbohydrates.Many pregnant misunderstood the question: "Is there enough you eat?" They believe that a plate, for example, pasta, for breakfast and then for lunch and dinner is consistent with the notion of adequate food.And they do not know that must be present in the diet dairy products, meat, fish, chicken, and fruits and vegetables.
also appointed tocolytic (relaxing the uterus), medications, vasodilators (to improve the utero-placental blood flow), drugs that normalize blood rheology and vitamins.Antihypoxic drugs are also needed (because the child does not receive funds in addition to nutrients and oxygen more), and means of improving the metabolism improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting .
However, fetal malnutrition - is not a sentence.Timely initiation of treatment and compliance with the doctor's recommendations can achieve good results and reduce fetal malnutrition to zero.