Diabetes in pregnancy - is not such a rare phenomenon
Pregnancy - a special period in a woman's life at this time there is a reorganization of all biochemical processes in the body and metabolism in general.All this can cause malfunctions of the body of mother and negatively affect the health of the child.One such failure is diabetes mellitus - threatening and incurable disease pregnant.
How and why diabetes occurs in pregnant
Diabetes in pregnancy is not an uncommon phenomenon.Elevated blood sugar sugar in the blood - a very important indicator common in many pregnant women, but diabetes develops in about one in ten women.Such diabetes called gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).The reason for increase in blood sugar in pregnant women - hormonal changes.
To understand how this happens, it is necessary to know the basic principles of carbohydrate metabolism.Carbohydrates - a source of energy that is used for all human activities: the biochemical processes inside of his body, breathing, heartbeat, work, sports, and so on.Carbohydrates ingested with food, enteric decomposed into simple sugars and absorbed into the bloodstream.From the blood glucose as a fuel is supplied to the cells - that's what sustains life in our bodies.Glucose residues are converted into glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles as glucose reserves.But glucose can not get into a cell without the hormone insulin, which is produced by special cells of the pancreas.Therefore, even if a person's blood glucose more than normal, but not enough insulin or insulin for some reason can not do its job, the body begins to lack of energy, and violated all the biochemical processes - that is diabetes.
cause of diabetes is the development of the body of pregnant pregnancy hormones that inhibit the action of insulin.That is, insulin is, but suppressed its ability to be absorbed by the body of the mother.This physiological mechanism by which glucose gets to the part of the fetus.A mother's body as an energy material starts to use fat and protein.Begin such changes in a woman's body for about 4 months pregnant.When blood sugar rises early, most likely, it is said that a woman in the past suffered latent diabetes, and pregnancy just revealed it.
a slight increase in blood sugar levels are in many women, and is developing GDM, not all, but only those women who have a certain predisposition.This predisposition to disease proceeds under the influence of factors such as obesity, age greater than 35 years, presence of endocrine diseases.To suggest the possibility of GDM in a pregnant woman can be, if it were labor, accompanied by polyhydramnios, stillbirth, a child with a large weight (4 kg or more), a child with developmental disabilities.Such women are predisposed also to spontaneous abortions and miscarriages.It has the meaning and the close relatives of patients with diabetes.
After birth all signs disappear GDM.But it also happens that pregnancy brings out the true diabetes, who after giving birth does not pass.
Symptoms of diabetes in pregnant
In less severe diabetes in pregnant women it can not be shown.That is why all women during pregnancy several times checked blood sugar.In more severe cases it appears dry mouth, thirst, excessive urination.
GDM complicates the course of pregnancy, there is a risk of gestosis (toxicosis of late pregnancy) with edema, high blood pressure, the appearance of protein in the urine protein in the urine - a sign of danger, which should not be underestimated (sign of kidney damage)and changes in the brain in the form of seizures and impaired consciousness.Women with GDM increases the risk of miscarriage, polyhydramnios, fetal birth of large (and hence complications in childbirth), and various urinary tract infections (diabetes mellitus reduced immunity).
in I - II trimester of pregnancy in healthy women fasting glucose decreases and increases in the second half.Thus, in a healthy pregnant woman blood glucose level after meal is higher than in non-pregnant women (4-5,2 mg / l at a rate of 3.3 - 5.5 mmol / l).
How does gestational diabetes in the child's condition
GDM affects not only the mother but also the baby.Fetus develop characteristic changes called diabetic fetopathy.Such a child, despite the heavy (often up to 4 kg), has a functional underdevelopment of many organs and systems: the nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, metabolic disorders and so on.This is due to the fact that during pregnancy the fetus grows irregularly, then it slows its growth (when blood from the mother to the fetus receives little sugar), then accelerated (arrives too much sugar), which is caused by changing the amount of hormones in the mother's blood.
How is diabetes in pregnant
In milder forms of GDM women are recommended to change the diet: eliminate from it all digestible carbohydrates, that is all sweet and rich.If blood sugar levels blood sugar - one of the main indicators of human health remains the same or increases, the prescribed insulin preparations.Women should not be afraid of such treatment is prevention because of various complications of pregnancy and diabetic fetopathy a child.
If, despite treatment, the weight of the baby is growing very rapidly and exceeds the norm, delivery is recommended for 2 - 3 weeks ahead of schedule by induction of labor or caesarean section.
prevention of complications of diabetes in pregnant women is regular monitoring in the antenatal clinic.