Thyroid disorders in children: types illness
- Thyroid disorders in children: types of illness
- Basedow disease
Although children and teenagers from thyroid disease suffer much less than adults, the signsand symptoms of such diseases in most cases the same.
Congenital hypothyroidism - a disease common in newborns (according to statistics, one of the four thousand babies).Congenital hypothyroidism is characterized by dysfunction of the thyroid gland's inability to produce enough hormones.In rare cases, the thyroid gland is completely absent.Approximately ten percent of cases, the cause of congenital hypothyroidism - enzimopaty (fermentopathy) leading to a deficiency of thyroid hormones, and iodine deficiency disorders of the pituitary gland.In the absence of a proper diagnosis and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism can lead to defects in the child's development and mental retardation Mental retardation - if the mind is underdeveloped .
In most countries, the newborn check the thyroid gland shortly after birth - usually within the first week after birth is carried out a blood test that checks the level of thyroid hormones.After the detection of hypothyroidism in infants treatment begins immediately.Treatment of congenital hypothyroidism involves hormone replacement therapy with synthetic forms of the hormone thyroxine Thyroxine - the main thyroid hormone , produced by the thyroid gland.Such treatment does not have negative effects on the mental and physical development of the child.
usually congenital hypothyroidism with the development of the first symptoms of thyroid disease in children occur within the first few days - including poor appetite, constipation, low temperaturebody, cold skin, slow heartbeat, drowsiness.Within a few weeks after the birth of a baby becoming noticeably more serious consequences of congenital hypothyroidism - slow growth and development, dry skin and hair, reduced muscle tone, slow reflexes, the emergence of an umbilical hernia.At this stage, the treatment of hypothyroidism hormone drugs can suppress most of the symptoms, but the likelihood of damage to the child's brain is very high.
Hyperthyroidism in children
Hyperthyroidism, increased activity of the thyroid gland, occurs in newborns in very rare cases - a condition called neonatal hyperthyroidism.If the mother of the newborn found Graves' disease, stimulates the thyroid antibodies in the blood can get into the child's body and affect the child's thyroid gland, causing an overabundance of hormones.Usually in such cases, treatment is needed - antibodies trapped in the body of the infant the mother's body, independently derived from the blood within two or three months.However, in rare cases, the level of antibodies is so high that can cause acute thyrotoxicosis.In this case, for the normalization of the hormonal level of the child requires immediate treatment with medications that suppress thyroid function.
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism in children are similar to the symptoms of the disease in adults: it is heart palpitations and irritability Irritability - Try to control your mood , and fever.Treatment with drugs that suppress the function of the thyroid gland, safe for children and usually can suppress the symptoms of hyperthyroidism in children for a very short period of time.
One of the most common causes of hypothyroidism in children and adolescents - Hashimoto's thyroiditis, an autoimmune disease.The cause of this disease - antibodies produced by the immune system, breaking the production of thyroid hormones.Hashimoto's thyroiditis can occur at any age, however, as the symptoms develop very slowly, Hashimoto's thyroiditis diagnosed at an early stage is difficult.
is often the first sign of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in children becomes a sudden slowdown in the growth and development of the skeleton, as well as a marked swelling of the neck (goiter), caused by inflammation of the thyroid gland.Other common symptoms of thyroid disease Thyroid disease - women at risk children include fatigue, dry itchy skin, increased sensitivity to cold, weight gain, poor concentration, constipation, decreased activity.
to determine hypothyroidism in children is a simple blood test that measures the levels of hormones produced by the thyroid gland and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the blood.The presence of antibodies (anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-thyroglobulin) also allows you to diagnose a thyroid disorder in the child.
Basic principles of treatment of Hashimoto's thyroiditis are the same for children and adults.For the treatment of the disease requires hormone replacement therapy - administration of drugs to compensate for the deficit of thyroid hormones in the recommended, in accordance with the age of dosage.For the control of the normal level of hormones requires regular blood tests.
hormone replacement therapy, used for the treatment of thyroiditis in children and adolescents, is quite effective: the treatment suppresses most of the symptoms and the body of the child develops a normal pace.However, in cases where hypothyroidism develops over a long period of time are possible consequences for child development - in particular, growth retardation, and skeletal development.The normalization of the thyroid gland can lead to changes and physiological and psychological nature: increased energy, increased activity of a child can lead to a loss of concentration and a decrease of attention, especially in school.Over time, such problems associated with changes in hormone levels, disappear on their own.