Perinatal encephalopathy: everything goes
term "perinatal" has been used since the sixties of the last century.Perinatal or perinatal period of human life begins with 22 completed weeks (154 days) of intrauterine fetal life (at the time of its weight is about 500 g), and ends after 7 full days after birth.During this period a child affected by multiple factors that determine its future health and development.
What perinatal encephalopathy and why it may be a child
Encephalopathy - a diffuse (spread) microfocal degenerative brain damage (due to an eating disorder of brain tissue) the nature, caused by various diseases and pathological conditions.Encephalopathy, which originated in the perinatal development of the child, called perinatal encephalopathy.
Perinatal encephalopathy is a direct consequence of insufficient supply of brain tissue hypoxia as a result of the child's (lack of oxygen), ischemia Ischemia - when the brain fails to work (blockage or narrowing of the arteries that bring blood to the brain), or toxic effects on the brain.
a result of this exposure affected the child's cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter, which in severe lesions can cause quadriplegia (paralysis of the arms and legs) and intellectual failure.In less severe injuries a delay of mental development of the child.
Perinatal encephalopathy can be caused by lack of oxygen (for example, placental insufficiency, or some diseases of the mother), traumatic lesions at delivery and in the first minutes and hours of lifeChild malnutrition brain tissue due to spasm of blood vessels supplying the brain, or due to effects on the brain tissue of various toxic substances.
How does perinatal encephalopathy
Perinatal encephalopathy can manifest itself in different ways, depending on how much was struck by brain tissue.There are three levels of perinatal encephalopathy:
- I degree - seen a slight increase or decrease in muscle tone and reflexes;often after birth, there are signs of a depression of the central nervous system (CNS), which in a few days give way to excitement, anxiety, baby, shake his pens and chin;
- II degree - CNS depression is more pronounced and is replaced by excitement;the child's muscles are relaxed (hypotonia), depressed reflexes, in some cases appear jerking of muscles and sensory disturbances of the internal organs in the form of vomiting, stool disorders, bloating Bloating - if you are bursting inside , increase or decreaseheart rate, respiratory arrhythmia and so on;
- III degree - pronounced and prolonged depression of the central nervous system, often with convulsions, the child lethargic, significant violations of the respiratory, cardiovascular and digestive systems.
When perinatal encephalopathy may appear as hydrocephalic syndrome, manifested in increased intracranial pressure and a rapid increase in the size of the baby's head.Parents should alert the child's constant anxiety, sleep disturbance Dreams: how to understand our dreams , lethargy, jerking, poor sucking, regurgitation.
diagnosis of perinatal encephalopathy
If something in the behavior of the newborn's mother worried, it must necessarily inform the pediatrician who visits the child at home the day after discharge from the hospital, and then once a week untilAs long as the baby is fulfilled month.In the month of mother and child come to the reception to a pediatrician (for this purpose in a special children's clinic selected 'healthy' Day), where the child be examined, measured, weighed, and all the data in the medical record.Says a lot about the monthly weight gain.Given the fact that the child in the first days of slightly losing weight a month, he must add to his birth weight 600 g If it is gleaning much weight, it indicates some troubles.All children under the age of one month is required to advise child neurologist who, if necessary, prescribes treatment.
to confirm the diagnosis is carried out a comprehensive survey to detect changes in the internal organs and the central nervous system.Be sure to make the electroencephalography (EEG), which allows to recognize the different stages of encephalopathy.The most informative method of diagnosis is evoked potentials (electrical response of the brain to external stimuli, which is recorded using EEG electrodes placed on the scalp) - they allow to predict an unfavorable outcome in the form of deafness, blindness and cerebral palsy.
Treatment of perinatal encephalopathy
Treatment of perinatal encephalopathy includes the following stages of treatment: the treatment of hypoxia, hypoxia caused by the treatment of metabolic disorders in the brain tissue and the treatment of hypoxic edema Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause of brain.At the same time, the earlier treatment is started the child, the more effective it will be.
newborn baby's brain can form new nerve cells and fully restore the central nervous system.