Asphyxia - the most common cause of all sorts of complications in childbirth from the fetus.As a result of asphyxia affects all organs and tissues of the body, but in the first place - the central nervous system cells, which can not exist without entering them oxygen.
What is asphyxia
asphyxia - a condition in which, during the first minutes after birth in the presence of cardiac activity or breathing does not appear expressed in some irregular breathing movements.
the term "asphyxia" means ordinary strangulation.Asphyxia and neonatal - relative concept.It refers to a set of different kinds of changes in the body of the fetus and newborn, occurring under the influence of oxygen deficiency and subsequent acidosis (changes in acid-base balance to the acid side).Asphyxia occurs mainly in its circulatory disorders, asphyxia - with breathing disorders.The fruit, which had all the signs of fetal asphyxia, not always born with the presence of asphyxia.
causes leading to the development of asp
- lack of oxygen and excess carbon dioxide or just a lack of oxygen in the mother (with acute blood loss, shock, cardiovascular diseases, intoxications, diseases of the circulatory system and blood);
- difficulties of blood circulation in the vessels of the umbilical cord and the violation of utero-placental circulation (in the pathology of the umbilical cord and placenta, toxemia of pregnancy, pregnancy perenashivanie, violations of labor and so on);
- fetal disease and dysfunction of the central nervous system (for example, malformations and birth trauma Birth injuries - than they threaten your child? with CNS, severe forms of congenital heart disease, and others);
- complete or partial obstruction of the airways at birth.
By severity distinguish 3 degrees of asphyxia.Grade I ("blue asphyxia") is characterized by marked cyanosis of skin, a slight slowing heartbeat and shallow breathing rare.At the II degree skin cyanotic newborn sharply, slowed heart rate, breathing almost completely absent.At III degree of asphyxia ("white" or "pale" asphyxia) newborn was not breathing, his skin pale, cyanotic mucous membranes, slowed heart beat very often erratically, muscles are completely relaxed (arms and legs hanging like a whip).
There are two groups of complications: early (occurring in the first hours and days of life) and late (from the end of the first week of life or later).Both groups share the complications of affected organs and systems.
Among the early complications release:
- central nervous system - the brain edema, intracranial hemorrhage, necrosis (death of) brain substance;
- changes of cardiovascular system - increase in pressure in the pulmonary blood vessels, poor blood supply to the heart muscle, heart failure;
- renal dysfunction - Various options for acute renal failure Acute renal failure - causes and consequences ;
- changes in the lungs - pulmonary edema, pulmonary hemorrhage, deficiency of surfactant (a special substance that promotes the expanded lungs), pneumonia Pneumonia - Symptoms and Causes ;
- defeat of the gastrointestinal tract - intestinal obstruction due to violations of the motor activity of the intestine;mucosal lesion of stomach and intestines;
- changes in the blood: anemia, decrease in the number of platelets (cells that promote blood clotting).
Among the late complications of the neurological prevail: general brain damage due to violation of its blood supply (encephalopathy), convulsions, and so on.By late complications include infection as well as pneumonia, meningitis Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges and sepsis (blood poisoning).
Treatment of newborn asphyxia
newborn asphyxia apply resuscitation:
- clearing the airway of the different obstacles and keeping them free cross - sucked the contents of the mouth catheter and other measures to remove the mucus from the respiratory tract;
- providing artificial ventilation (AV) - is introduced into the trachea of a special tube through which the child comes into the lungs breathing mixture;
- restoration and maintenance of normal cardiac function and blood circulation - carried out external cardiac massage, are administered drugs that stimulate the heart muscle.
great importance is the care of children asphyxiated.Children who have had light asphyxia, placed in an oxygen tent, moderate and severe - in the incubator (a special unit for the care of newborn babies).The first feeding in mild asphyxia and suffocation of average weight carried expressed milk is not earlier than after 12 hours.Children born in the severe asphyxia, begin to feed through a tube on the second day.
forecast the future of these children depends on the severity of asphyxia, timeliness and adequacy of treatment.