Infants is a child at birth, the first breath and the umbilical cord ligation to four weeks of age.This is a very difficult time for the baby: the dangers lying in wait for him at every step, as all its organs and systems begin to work in new ways, and this requires effort and stress.During this period, the child is also affected, and all diseases of the mother during pregnancy.
newborns in the neonatal period the children observed more frequent incidence than in other periods of life.Development of the disease may contribute to a variety of metabolic disorders that occur even in utero due to violations in a single regulatory system of the fetus, placenta, mother.
most common cause of neonatal morbidity is intrauterine hypoxia (lack of oxygen), which often develops after birth asphyxia - severe disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) disorders with deep cerebral circulation and often with intracranial hemorrhages.Asphyxia may be caused by other factors, such as birth traum
During asphyxia changes the activity of enzymes, violated the metabolic processes, there is acidosis (pH of the internal environment of the body is shifted to the acid side), which disrupts the work of all organs and systems in the body of the child.Especially suffered a brain that can not function in a lack of oxygen.
asphyxia complications may be early (occurring in the first hours and days of life) and late (from the end of the first week of life or later).The early complications include CNS (brain edema, intracranial hemorrhage, necrosis, or death of brain tissue sections), changes of the cardiovascular system (lack of contractile ability of the heart, transient disturbances of blood supply of the heart muscle), kidney damage (broken excretion of harmful productsmetabolic) disorders of pulmonary circulation (edema, inflammation of lung tissue), lesions of the gastrointestinal tract (may occur even intestinal obstruction), and more.
Among the late complications of the neurological prevail: brain damage with the development of hydrocephalus (excessive accumulation of fluid contained in the cavities of the brain and spinal canal) and seizures.By the late complications of infection include the accession of pneumonia, meningitis Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges , blood poisoning, and so on.
intrauterine infection (IUI) - is infectious processes caused by agents who had infiltrated from mother to child either before birth or during birth.The reason for IUI often are infections, sexually transmitted infections - chlamydia, salivary gland disease, mycoplasmosis Mycoplasmosis - infection does not always equal disease , genital herpes, and so on.A frequent cause can also be toxoplasmosis, German measles and chicken pox.IUI occur only when maternal infection occurred during pregnancy.
When properly developed immune system, the child may be infected, but the symptoms of the disease he will not.Therefore IUI most often in frail premature infants or children who had intrauterine hypoxia.
The effects on the fetus of IUI depends on the duration of maternal infection, if it happened in the first three months of pregnancy, babies are born with significant disabilities in a variety of defects.In the later period, the impact of IUI can cause multiple infections of internal organs and the central nervous system.
Various IUI occur in the neonatal period, in most cases the same as loss of appetite, underweight, lethargy, pallor, jaundice, shortness of breath, cyanosis, vomiting and diarrhea, edema, increased excitability, seizures, and so on.
appearance of such features requires examination of the child for the presence of IUI.Identification of pathogen carried by blood tests: polymerase chain reaction - PCR (DNA detected pathogen) or by enzyme immunoassay - ELISA (detected antibodies to the pathogen infection).Also conducted microbiological research: sowing biological fluids (blood, urine, and so on) on the identification of specific environmental pathogen and its sensitivity to certain drugs.Treatment is carried out only after laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis.
Other diseases the neonatal period
disease of the newborn baby can be a consequence of any chronic diseases of the mother (diabetes, heart disease Heart defects - time heals? and so on), or toxic tofetus during pregnancy (smoking, taking various drugs and so on).Especially dangerous are all these effects on the fetus during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.A newborn baby can be a variety of hereditary diseases that require emergency treatment.
diseases among infants occupy a significant place of illness caused by the incompatibility of blood between mother and fetus of Rh factor, and group factors.In this case, the mother is not some kind of protein (eg, Rh), and the child he is.As a result the protein (antigen) mother's body produces antibodies that are glued together with the antigens and eliminate them from the body.As a result of this interaction occurs hemolytic disease of the newborn - the mother's antibodies cross the placenta to reach the fetus, causing the latter hemolytic disease of the newborn, ie the destruction of red blood cells - red blood cells, which contain the Rh factor.
the neonatal period diseases require rapid detection and timely adequate treatment.