The human ear is divided into three parts: the outer (pinna, the ear canal to the eardrum), medium (from the eardrum - tympanum with auditory ossicles), internal (the cochlea and the semicircular canalslocated in the thicker of the temporal bone).Inflammation can occur in any of the sections, depending on the inflammation which distinguish the outer, middle or inner ear.Most often, when people talk about otitis, meaning it otitis media Otitis media - children's problem .
Etiology and pathogenesis
Otitis children are caused by viruses, bacteria and fungi, but the most common - coccal flora (staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci).
tympanum is not closed, through the auditory (eustachian) tube, it is connected to the nasal cavity, where bacteria and penetrate into the middle ear.When the disease the child any infections, as well as in the defeat of the gastrointestinal tract, may be a way of hematogenous drift of infection in the tympanic cavity.
predisposes to otitis factors is to
Clinical presentation and diagnosis
classic signs of acute otitis media is a severe pain in the ear, pain when pressing on the tragus of the ear andmastoid region, increased body temperature.In such cases, the diagnosis is not difficult.
However, the disease is often atypical, especially the children of the first months of life.Pay attention to the child's behavior - his position in bed, alone and facial expressions during feeding, the severity of crying.A significant may be the sudden concern fitful sleep, pendulum movements of the head during sleep Dreams: how to understand our dreams and involuntary touch ear hand, a long scream.The child refuses the breast or sucking just one breast opposite to the patient's ear while in a pose, helps reduce pain in the ear.Pain in otitis Otitis - than could face an ear infection expressed as the eardrum is well innervated.
- Acute otitis media lasts about two weeks, has a distinct clinical symptoms
- latent otitis lasts for two - four weeks, symptoms of otitis erased
- Recurrent otitis media occurs several times a year.
By the nature of discharge from the ear
- Catarrhal - no discharge
- Pyo-fibrinous - purulent discharge from the ear, perhaps with a small amount of blood
- hemorrhagic - bleeding
the phases of
- initial phase -from the onset of the disease before the appearance of the first symptoms
- phase of growth process - from the first symptoms to the full development of clinical symptoms
- Phase resolution - decrease in clinical symptoms
- phase of treatment - no symptoms of the disease
According to the severity of the disease
- Easy for
low-grade temperature, pain is poorly expressed.
high temperature, pain expressed, overall health suffers slightly.
High body temperature significantly severe pain, severe disturbance of general health.
Treatment and prevention
Treatment depends on the child's age and body resistance.Children older than two years, with good resistance usually transferred easily and otitis media are treated on an outpatient basis.Doctor prescribes antibiotics tablets Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future? , painkillers and bracing means, physiotherapy.
Children under two years of age and somatic weakened children are hospitalized and complex examination and treatment in hospital, as due to the anatomical features of the ear in this age group at high risk for complications, including such dangerous as sepsis, and meningoencephalitis.
Prevention of acute otitis is reasonable hardening of the child in order to increase resistance of the organism, dressing right on the street, in a timely and adequate treatment of infectious diseases and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, long-term preservation of breastfeeding.