Digitalis: Grass heart
digitalis has long been used in folk medicine as cordial.In Russia, it began to grow as a medicinal plant since 1730.The introduction of digitalis drugs in scientific medicine associated with the work of English physician Uayteringa published in 1775.Since then, in the treatment of heart failure Heart failure - when the heart is unable to cope with the work necessarily apply digitalis preparations.
foxglove Digitalis - a genus of perennial herbaceous plants of the family figwort, including up to 36 species, of which 7 grows in our country.As a source of medicinal raw materials used mainly 5 types of foxglove - purple, grandiflora, woolly, rusty and ciliates.
digitalis purple - a large biennial herb up to 120 cm with a brittle, wrinkled leaves oblong-ovate up to 30 cm long.The smell of dried leaves is weak, but it is enhanced by insisting in hot water.The flowers are 3-4 cm long, horizontal deflection, campanulate calyx, corolla shaped like a thimble.Fruit - egg-shaped capsule with two valves.The seeds are very small, numerous, brown, wrinkled.Flowers in June - July.In the wild in our country it is not found, cultivated in different territories.
digitalis woolly - a perennial herb.It differs from the purple foxglove leaves and smaller flowers, shape and color of the corolla, densely pubescent presence in the inflorescences.In the wild foxglove it is rare, so is listed in the Red Book of rare plants to be protected.
chemical composition of digitalis
Active substances are digitalis cardiac glycosides - complex compounds such as esters containing in its structure and carbohydrate components glycoprivous.Last called aglycone or Genin.For the cardiac glycosides digitalis characterized by the following 5 types of Genin: digitoksigenin, gitoksigenin, gitaloksigenin, digoxigenin and diginatigenin.
Depending on the structure of the carbohydrate component or distinguish primary genuinnye glycosides (purpureaglikozidy A and B digilanidy A, B, C and others) and secondary produced by enzymatic cleavage of specific carbohydrate residues.Thus, when cleaved end glucose Glucose: The energy source purpureaglikozida and the image of digitoxin.
action of digitalis drugs on the human body
digitalis preparations have a specific effect on the heart muscle (myocardium).They increase the strength of heart contractions, reduce their frequency and lengthen diastole (diastole - the relaxation of the heart muscle, occurring after its contraction or systole).
Therapeutic effect of digitalis preparations with circulatory failure is reduced to a more complete emptying of the ventricular systolic, increased blood volume ejected (cardiac output), a decrease of tachycardia (heart palpitations).This reduces size of the heart, the blood circulation time decreases, decreases the volume of blood in the blood stream, which in turn helps to reduce edema.Blood pressure rises by several vasoconstrictor effect.
ingestion of digitalis glycosides are absorbed adequately, but their effect develops only after a period of time that, as the duration of action of drugs, different individual glycosides.Due to slow excretion of digitalis glycosides are capable of accumulation (accumulation in the body) that is most pronounced in digitoksina least of all - in digoxin.
The use of digitalis preparations in medicine
digitalis drugs used to treat heart failure of various origins, some forms of atrial fibrillation Arrhythmia - when we hear his heart , as well as for the prevention of heart failure in patients withorganic (to the restructuring) lesions of the heart.In the first few days are appointed by the highest dose (cumulative effect is created), and then move on to maintenance dose that is prescribed for a long time.Titration of cardiac glycosides for a particular patient happens individually with all the features of the patient.
In the treatment of the toxic effects of digitalis may be manifested by various disturbances of cardiac rhythm disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, the cardiovascular and central nervous system, the part of eye, skin, blood, endocrine organs, so the treatment of cardiac glycosides can only be donedoctor.If signs of intoxication drug digitalis should be immediately stop taking.
Contraindications bradycardia digitalis are bradycardia - when the heart stops (very slow heart rate), and cardiac conduction disturbances (heart block).
Cooking digitalis preparations at home and take them without a doctor's prescription is very dangerous.