The index of amniotic fluid: how much water should be?
amniotic fluid or amniotic fluid play an important role in the development and health of the unborn baby.After all, they protect the fetus from the compression of the uterine wall, protect the umbilical cord compression, are involved in metabolism Metabolism: The basis of life of all living and give the baby a comfortable living conditions in the uterus.However, for various reasons, the quantity and quality of amniotic fluid may vary.Sometimes this leads to pathologies such as oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios.To determine the volume of amniotic fluid are a special calculation, the final stage of which is the index of amniotic fluid.In modern society, no one would risk a qualified specialist to diagnose oligohydramnios only on the basis of examination of a pregnant woman.
Determination of the amount of amniotic fluid
calculation of the amniotic fluid index (AFI) is made on the ultrasound.It can be both subjective and objective.
experienced ultrasound diagnostician evaluates the amount of amniotic fluid by visual inspection by conducting a thorough longitudinal and transverse scanning.If the number of visual amniotic fluid, located between the anterior abdominal wall and the fruit of a substantial, the conclusion indicates polyhydramnios.When oligohydramnios, on the contrary, reduced the number of spaces available on Ehostruktura.
To calculate the index of amniotic fluid divides the uterus into four quadrants by two perpendicular lines.The longitudinal line corresponds to the white line of the abdomen and uterus divides vertically into two halves, and the transverse line is at the level of the navel and the future mother's uterus separates the upper and lower halves.Each quadrant is determined by the maximum vertical pocket, indicators of these pockets are summarized what I considered to be an index of amniotic fluid.
On the normal amount of amniotic fluid shows indicators AFI 6,0-24 cm (depending on the duration of pregnancy).If the vertical pocket is 5,0-2,0 cm, say moderate polyhydramnios, with a decrease in amniotic fluid index to 2 cm or less is considered to be severe polyhydramnios.Excess AFI 8cm indicates polyhydramnios.
According to other authors of the normal value AFI is 8,1-18sm.
water shortage - a decrease in the volume of amniotic fluid of 500 ml or less as a result of violations of their formation and absorption.Suspected oligoamnios obstetrician may have during the inspection and measurement of the patient's abdominal circumference and height of standing uterus.The reasons include low water:
- infectious diseases, including sexually transmitted infections (toxoplasmosis, mycoplasmosis Mycoplasmosis - infection does not always equal disease , chlamydia);
- chronic diseases of the mother (tonsillitis, renal failure);
- fetal abnormalities Fetal development - week after week ;
- chronic intrauterine hypoxia and others.
Besides calculating the index of amniotic fluid is performed Doppler study of blood flow in the mother-placenta-fetus.Dangerously low water delayed fetal growth (intrauterine hypotrophy), which is also determined by ultrasound.There are three degrees of malnutrition: the first power of the fruit behind in development for two weeks, while the second - in two to four weeks, and the third - for four weeks or more.Often, when fetal malnutrition causes premature ripening (aging) of the placenta.To assess the condition of the fetus in addition to Doppler monitor baby's heartbeat using cardiotocography (CTG).Severe water scarcity, especially in terms of 16-24 weeks dangerous spontaneous abortion or intrauterine fetal death.Oligohydramnios often a marker of fetal malformations.Pregnant women with oligohydramnios complex treatment (improvement of utero-placental blood flow, normalize metabolic processes of the fetus and placenta).With effective treatment, it marks an increase of amniotic fluid and fetal weight gain.In the absence of the effect of the treatment addressed the issue of pre-term delivery (usually by cesarean section).