Rh-conflict pregnancy: important studies
Scientists have found that about eighty-five percent of people are Rh positive, and the other fifteen - Rh negative.In ordinary life, the presence or absence of Rh factor does not pose any danger, but can lead to Rh-conflict pregnancy.Rh-conflict pregnancy threatens complications such as the development of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, miscarriage, premature birth or even death of the fetus or newborn.
What is Rh factor?
Rh factor first identified in rhesus macaques, why it got its name.Rh factor is a protein that attaches to red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen.Rh factor is determined together with blood.The presence or absence of Rh factor is incorporated genetically, that is, from the moment of fertilization.
Rhesus conflict develops during pregnancy if the mother is Rh-negative, Rh-positive father, and the child inherits Rh-positive blood.In this case, a high probability of Rhesus-conflict, and it is higher, the greater was the pregnancies, including abortions, miscarriages and ectopic pregnancies.The main manifestation of Rh-conflict pregnancy is that when released into the mother's blood is Rh-positive red blood cells of the fetus in the mother's bloodstream begin to form Rh antibodies.Rh antibodies, in turn, enter the bloodstream of the fetus, which start to destroy red blood cells, leading to the development of hemolytic disease of the fetus.
Factors contributing to the formation of antibodies antirhesus
All the factors are divided into three groups:
- Hit the blood of the fetus in the mother's blood
This happens most often during childbirth, while abortion or miscarriage, threatened abortion, ectopic pregnancy, during amniocentesis, and in the case of increased vascular permeability of the placenta (infection, hemorrhage, injury).
- Transfusion women without Rh compatibility
Transfusion of Rh-positive blood Rh-negative women, even many years ago, provokes the formation antirhesus antibodies that will continue during the Rh-conflict pregnancy.
- spontaneous formation of antibodies without reason.
Clinical manifestations rhesus
When the maternal antibodies into the bloodstream of the fetus, they actively start to destroy red blood cells of the child.The consequences translate into hemolytic disease of fetus or newborn (in the case of penetration of antibodies Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity the blood of the child during birth).Hemolytic disease is divided into three basic forms (for the most severe symptoms):
- Anemic form
massive destruction of fetal red blood cells leads to their disadvantage, reduced hemoglobin, which carries oxygen, resulting in intrauterine fetal hypoxia develops fetal hypoxia- the consequences of lack of oxygen in the body .Oxygen starvation, in turn, slows the growth and development of the fetus.Lack of red blood cells affects the liver and spleen, which are increasing in size, trying to synthesize the red blood cells.
destruction of red blood cells during fetal hemoglobin is released that which passes through a series of chemical reactions to form bilirubin Bilirubin - a great tool for the diagnosis .Bilirubin affects the cells of the brain and spinal cord of the child, causing neurological symptoms after birth.Furthermore, bilirubin stain the skin of the child in a yellow color.
- edematous form
This is the most severe form of hemolytic disease.As a result, reduction of protein in the blood and biochemical abnormalities in the cells of edema Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause of tissues.A child at birth is in serious condition, the presence of severe anemia, neurological symptoms, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders.
Measures against Rhesus conflict
Throughout pregnancy a woman should regularly donate blood for antibodies and passes ultrasound dopplerography.In the case of hemolytic disease of the fetus in utero is assigned via blood.With the progression of the disease addressed the issue of pre-term delivery.If a woman to twenty-eight weeks of pregnancy showed no antibodies, it introduced Rh immunoglobulin, red blood cells that binds mother and inhibits the synthesis of antibodies.Repeated administration of immunoglobulin held within seventy-two hours after birth.